Propaganda is presentation of a message with specific way in order to satisfy specific goals. Exactly the goal of propaganda is not to inform the people for something but the goal is to change the views and feelings of others in order to follow the rules of the ideology. An easy way for the fascist regimes to do propaganda was the absolute control of the mass media. Through the mass media the fascist governments were able to communicate with people and convince them for their ideology. They were able to present their messages. A dictator had all the powers so mass media have not the right of freedom of expression. Because of this fact, mass media transmitted the messages of the fascist government and their ideology. Mass media always show the sports and especially the sports that attract the interest of the majority. When mass media was under the absolute control of the dictatorships, the sport facts within the country were showed with propagandist way in order to promote the regime that exists in the country. Sport facts were usually carried out in stadiums that were full by sports fans. So there was gathered a crowd and the dictator had found the chance in order to speak to the audience as the person who took the power in order to save his nation and transmit his propaganda message. (Propaganda and persuasion, Jowett, G.S., O’Donnell V., p.185-195)
Success in sports was appeared as a national success and at extension success of the regime. In Spain for example the football successes of Real Madrid in European Champions Cup in the mid and late of 1950’s projected by the mass media as football supremacy of Spain in Europe and as Franco’s success.
The same happened when Spanish national team won the European Nations’ Cup in 1964 in Santiago Bernabeu Stadium against the Soviet Union. This national victory projected by the Spanish media as Franco’s regime victory against the Communist Soviet Union. In tournament of 1960 Franco had not permitted to the Spanish national team to play against the later champion USSR. In 1964 however Franco allowed to national team to play against the Soviets in Madrid’s final and thus he was vindicated with a glorious victory against the Communists. (BBC Documentary: The history of football)
Television, newspapers and radio were tools in hands of the dictatorships and always had said only what the dictator had wanted. So the mass media promoted the propaganda of these totalitarian regimes within and out of the national borders. People are convinced by the regime and via the tool which called mass media; the fascist regimes used certain methods as nationally ideals, pride for the glorious past of nation and superiority than other nations in order to persuade. By these methods people become supporter of the regime. The goal of Fascist propaganda was to persuade every citizen about the image of powerful and proud nation faithfully following its deified leader. (Propaganda and persuasion, Jowett, G.S., O’Donnell V., p.185-195)
The three main European states where fascism appeared were Italy, Germany and Spain. The three dictators, Mussolini, Hitler and Franco had as a common purpose the obedience of people towards their face, the face of the absolute leader. They had also as purpose the propaganda via massive concentrations where they would be projected the national identity and ideals. These three dictators believed that were the persons that were most capable to bring unity among people and lead the nation in new glorious days something that the previous non-fascist governments failed to achieve. The rise of Fascism in Europe appeared as something new with aim to revive the nationalism; to shape national identity and national vision.