Propaganda is the transmission of a message, information, news, theory etc in such a way that becomes believable without verification or with a view to be accepted by the public. Based on propaganda is a particular way of communication among the population with which the propagandist transmits his beliefs. Propaganda influences intensely the public, because it changes the attitude of the public as long as changes their perceptions, and this because satisfies their needs, when these are not conscious in the beginning. These needs are not those that are reported in the special propaganda message, but they have deep roots in the personality of individual. For instance, the need of safety, to not feel anyone isolated or ignored. By this way the public becomes ally of propagandist and accepts from him his message with unprincipled alleviation. The effectiveness of propaganda is determined by the faculty of propagandists and by their organization, that certain times requires higher economic and technical means and uses complex and scientifically organized methods, trying to avoid for example the probability of results opposite from those that are sought (the boomerang phenomenon). (Propaganda, Jackall, R., p.13-25, Age of Propaganda: The Everyday use and abuse of persuasion, Pratkanis A., Aronson E., p.10-11)

Characteristic examples of ideological propaganda are its use from totalitarian

Joseph Paul Goebbels

regimes, such as Nazi Germany where the propaganda “machine” that was under the control of Joseph Paul Goebbels used the cinematographic picture and the repetition of racist stereotypes in order to achieve their objectives. Furthermore the totalitarian regimes used radio stations in an attempt to have direct contact with the population in order to arouse them and make them fanatics of the national ideal. (Propaganda, Jackall, R., p.194-195)





Nazi propaganda especially was shaping in such way in order to project the unity of nation. The massive concentrations of the National-Socialist Party in sport stadiums

with a huge crowd it was a great example of Nazi propaganda because these concentrations as essential part of Nazi propaganda had as an aim to show the public solidarity and that the people were supporter of the Nazi regime. So sport events were considered as the massive concentrations and displays that served the Nazi propaganda. Because of the fact that the massive concentrations and displays constituted important part of Nazi propaganda, the athletic places and stadiums were ideal for the promotion of Nazi ideology but also for the prospect of bigger public solidarity.   (Propaganda and persuasion, Jowett, G.S., O’Donnell V., p.185-195)