, , , , ,

During the 19th century regions of Spain had already tendencies of separation from the central power of Madrid. In this century revolutionary movements fought against the central power with final goal the autonomy of their regions. Madrid’s monarchy as the Catholic Church prevented any effort towards democratization and autonomy of the Spanish regions. At the beginning of 20th century, ethniccivilwar58 groups reappeared with their particular characteristics such as Catalans, Castilians, and Basques. The conflict between Madrid and the regions and the reappearance of regional ethnic identity led to separated tendencies and towards the dramatic civil war of 1936-1939. (Europe in the twentieth century, Paxton R.O., p.372-374, Fascism, Tames R., p.34-37)

Spain almost never controlled by democratic government but by military regimes that were imposed by “saviors” with a view to lead the nation towards glorious days. Democratic regime was established before the start of the civil war but however Democracy faced a lot of problems and military officers wanted to destroy it. Catholic Church, army and the class of landowners dominated a nation of poor farmers. The continuous political instability, conflicts and violence between Right party and communists as well as the tendencies for autonomy from Catalans and Basques led to the civil war from 1936 until 1939. It was war between the Spanish Nationalists under the guidance of the military general Francisco Franco Bahamonde and Democratic Spanish Forces under the guidance of the president of 2nd Spanish Democracy Manuel Azaña. In one hand the Spanish Nationalists supported by the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italyvittorio-pisani-franco-s-victorious-army-enters-madrid_i-G-17-1741-T4X3D00Z and in the other hand the Democratic Spanish Forces supported by Soviet Union. The side of Franco won after terrible murders of innocent people and armed forces of legal government. Franco established military regime in the new Spanish state and also he was recognized as head of state, supreme head of armed forces and dictator of Spain as well. (Europe in the twentieth century, Paxton R.O., p.372-374, Fascism, Tames R., p.34-37)